Human Rights Council (HRC)
1. Refugee Crisis: Integration and the right to return
Since the outbreak of the Syrian civil war and the rise of the so-called ISIS (Islamic State of Iraq and Syria), many Syrians and Iraqis saw their one and only opportunity to escape. They sought refuge in neighbouring countries, such as Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey, or they fled to Europe. Yet, it is not only the Middle East and Europe who are dealing with refugees; there are many other parts of the world where people have had to move on the grounds of war or their religious and political beliefs. In Nigeria people are fleeing due to the horrific actions of Boko Haram and in Myanmar, the fear of repercussions based on their religion left many Rohingya Muslims with no other choice than to leave their homes.
Once the refugees make it to a safe country, new problems arise. One of the biggest and most discussed challenges is how to integrate them into society. How can you integrate people with different languages and different cultural backgrounds into a society when they have just arrived? Another topic which is often discussed when talking about refugees is their right to return. According to this principle, refugees would be allowed to return to their home country, once it is safe and no longer poses a threat to them. This issue is harder than it seems.
The committee will look at and find solutions to the following; how to overcome language barriers, how to find a means of integrating refugees and how we can look at implementing the right to return into international law.
2. Capital punishment and the implementation of safeguards guaranteeing the rights of those facing the death penalty
In 2015, at least 1634 people were executed in 25 countries. Capital punishment, otherwise known as the death penalty, is the highest and most disruptive punishment a State can impose when sentencing a criminal. This is the most severe form of corporal punishment. There are several forms of the death penalty. A few examples include; a lethal injection, hanging from the neck, gassing or death by firing squad. It is used as a last resort in the State of law. In this respect, members of the United Nations can be divided into three groups; countries that have abolished the death penalty, partly-abolished it or are still using capital punishment. It is important to differentiate between the states that have abolished death penalty in law and the ones who have actually abolished it in practice.
Nevertheless, even for those nations who have not abolished the death penalty, the Human Rights Council should still guarantee the respect of human rights while the prisoners are awaiting their sentencing. During the conference, we will discuss the use of capital punishment, how the number of executions could be decreased and the situation of criminals sentenced to the death penalty and how to guarantee the respect of human rights.
Study Guide Human Rights Council: study-guide-hrc-2017